1. Alcorn, J. 1990. Indigenous agroforestry systems in the Latin American Tropics In Agroecology and small farm development M. Altieri and S. Hecht, Editor. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Indigenous agroforestry systems in the Latin American Tropics, cassava, home gardens, mixed gardens, tropical forests, cassava, polyculture, mixed, multiple, cacao, homegardens, household,

2. Almazan, A.M. and R.L. Theberge. 1989. Influence of cassava mosaic virus on cassava leaf-vegetable quality. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad).
66(305-308): .

Zaire/Central Africa/pruning Cassava mosaic virus reduced HCN content of Cassava leaves by 1/4 to 1/3. Protein also decreased, but not sugars or crude fiber

3. Altieri, M., ed. 1993. Crop Protection Strategies for Subsistence Farmers. Westview: Boulder, CO. 197.

pest management, IPM, Crop Protection strategies, subsistence farmers, traditional, IPM for cassava farmers, cassava intercropping, rice, mango, mealybugs, biocontrol, mites,

4. Arene, O.B. 1976. Influence of shade and intercropping on the incidence of cassava bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas manihotis. IDRC-IITA Workshop on Cassava Bacterial Blight. IITA, Ibadan.
Multiple Cropping/shade/cassava bacterial blight/Xanthomonas manihotis/bacteria

5. Ashby, J.A. 1985. The social ecology of soil erosion in a Colombian farming system. Rural Sociology.
50(3): 377-396.

farmer participation/experimentation, beans/cassava/CIAT/soil erosion HT401 .R8

6. Asomaning, E.J.A. and R.S. Kwaka. Year. Effect of graded degrees of shading on the growth of healthy and swollen shoot virus-infected cocoa seedlingsCacao. Conf. Int. sur les Recherches Agronomique Cacaoyeres. Abidjan, Ivory Coast.: Inst. Franais du Cafe et du Cacao.

Cassava swollen shoot virus reduced biomass to 53% of non-inoculated treatment under 90% shade and 77% of healthy in full sunlight. CSSV treatment in full sunlight produced higher biomass than healthy treatment in shade. Good study West Africa/shade

7. Aumeeruddy, Y. and F. Pingo. none. Phytopractices in tropical regions. A preliminary survey of tradtional crop improvement techniques. Institut de Botanique, Laboratoire de Botanique Tropicale, Montpellier, France. 71 pp.

traditional knowledge, traditional practices, grafting, pruning, thinning, arching, smoking (mangos), mukibat practice for cassava in Indonesia HDT file

8. Balogapalan and e. al. 1988. Cassava in food, feed and industry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
cassava, manioc, yuca

9. Baxter, J. 1995. Chromolaena odorata. Weed for the killing or shrub for the tilling. Agroforestry Today.
7(2): 6-8.

Chromolaena odorata was once called Eupatorium odoratum, it is indigenous to Central America, rubber, oil palm and coconut plantation owners want to get rid of it as a noxious weed, using biological control to get rid of it, but it suppresses Imperata cylindrica and small farmers in Indonesia use it as a soil fertilizer. It is a good cover crop and green manure for various crops (ie. cassava and irrigated rice), Imperata cylindrica, Chromolaena odorata, bush-fallow rotation, succession, slash-and-burn, fallow period, biomass, land-use intensification, noxious weeds, mulch

10. Beckerman, S. 1987. Swidden in Amazonia and the Amazon rim In Comparative Farming Systems B.L. Turner II and S.B. Brush, Editor. Guilford Press, New York.

South America/swidden/slash and burn/fire/heat/Amazon Detailed description of Bari (Motilones) system/leave cassava (yuca) in ground 2 years

11. Beckerman, S. 1993. Major patterns in indigenous Amazonian subsistence . pp. 411-424. In: Hladik, C. M , A. Hladik, O.F. Linares, H. Pagezy, A. Semple, M. Hadley. (eds.) Tropical Forests, People and Food. Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. UNESCO and Parthenon., Paris, France.

Amazon, tropical ecosytems, forests, indigenous agriculture, manioc, bananas, food production per hour of labor invested, fishing, game hunting, cassava

12. Bellotti, A.C. 1977. An overview of cassava entomology In Cassava protection workshop . pp. 29-39. In: Brekelbaum, T., A. Bellotti, J. C. Lozano (eds.) Cassava Protection Workshop. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 244 pp.., Cali, Colombia.

cassava, insects, pests, IPM,

13. Bock, K.R. and E.J. Guthrie. 1977. Cassava mosaic In Diseases, Pests and Weeds in Tropical Crops J. Kranz, H. Schmutterer, andW. Koch, Editor. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin.

roguing African common cassava mosaic virus

14. Bonierbale, M., C. Iglesias, and K. Kawano. Year. Genetic resource management of cassava at CIATThe First Ministry of Agric., Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), Japan International Workshop on Genetic Resources - Root and Tuber Crops. Tsukuba Office of MAFF Research Council: Research Council Secretariat of MAFF and National Institute of Agrobiological Resources.

CIAT collection has 52§3 accessions cassava, root and tuber crops, CIAT,

15. Boom, B.M. 1987. Ethnobotany of the Chacobo Indians, Beni, Bolivia. Advances in Economic Botany.
4: .

ethnobotany, Peru, medicinal plants, rubber, Brazil nuts, Bolivia, cassava, tropical forests

16. Booth, R.H. Year. A review of root rot diseases in cassava. In: T. Brekelbaum, A. Bellotti, andJ.C. Lozano. Proceedings of the Cassava Protection Workshop. Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

hilling/raised Phytophthora drechsleri, Armillariella (Armillaria), Clitocybe, Diplodia, Ganoderma, Pheolus, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Rigidoporus (Fomes), Rosellinia, Sphaerostilbe, and minor species from other genera of fungi and bacteria cause root rots in cassava. Ridges recommended for control.

17. Boster, J.S. 1983. A comparison of the diversity of Jivaroan gardens with that of the tropical forest. Human Ecology.
11: 47-68.

Diversity/cassava/Amazon/Ecuador/South America/selection Jivaro Indians

18. Boster, J.S. 1984. Classification, cultivation, and selection of Aguaruna cultivars of Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae). Advances in Economic Botany.
1: 34-47.

Diversity/cassava/selection/South America/Amazon Aguaruna Jivaro indians

19. Boster, J.S. 1984. Inferring decision making from preferences and behavior: An analysis of Aguaruna Jivaro manioc selection. Human Ecology.
12: 343-358.

cassava/South America/Amazon 'The Aguaruna Jivaro maintain in cultivation an inventory of more than 100 varieties of manioc.' 'However, they maintain a number of rarer varieties when cold logic might recommend abandonment in favor of higher-yielding varieties. In maintaining diversity for its own sake, they show it does not pay to think too hard about which manioc varieties to maintain.' Aguaruna Jivaro indians

20. Boster, J.S. 1985. Selection for perceptual distinctiveness: Evidence from Aguaruna cultivars of Manihot esculenta. Economic Botany.
39(3): 310-325.

cassava/multiple cropping/cultivar mixtures/selection/South America/Amazon/Aguaruna Jivaro indians 'In fact, the diversity of distinct manioc cultivars in polycropped gardens is greater that the diversity of distinct crops.' (Boster, 1983)

21. Boster, J. 1986. Exchange of varieties and information between Aguaruna manioc cultivators. Am. Anthropologist.
88: 428-436.

Selection/diversity/cassava/Aguaruna Jivaro Indians/Ecuador/Amazon/South America

22. Bronson, B. 1966. Roots and the subsistence of the ancient Maya. Southwestern J. of Anthropology.
22: 251-279.

Central America/resistance/fungi Classic theory suggests that Maya slash and burn systems involved low productivity maize culture. Maize rust may have lowered productivity even lower since ancient cultivars were more susceptible than modern cultivars. Bronson rebuts that roots (sweet potato, yam bean, Xanthosoma, and cassava) were as important as maize, and that this may have given the civilization a much higher carrying capacity than previously thought. Puccinia sorghi

23. Carneiro, R.L. 1973. Slash-and-burn cultivation among the Kikuru and its implications for cultural development in the Amazon basin. In: Gross, D. R. (ed.) Peoples and Cultures of Native South America. Doubleday/The Nat. Hist. Press, Garden City, NJ, pp 98-123.

heat/South America/fallow Cassava planted in mounds 4-5 feet apart. Lowered crop yields after 2-3 years of shifting cultivation are due to increased weed competition rather than declining soil fertility (e.g. Nigeria, Fiji, Yucatan). No mention of disease.

24. Carneiro, R.L. 1987. Indians of the Amazonian forest. In: Denslow, Julie S. and Padoch,Christine (eds.) People of the Tropical Rain Forest. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 25-36.

slash and burn/fire/heat/diversity/
knowledge/hilling/raised beds/South America/agroforestry/multiple cropping/mixed gardens/raised "The Kuikuru of central Brazil were able to name 191 different trees and could cite a use - and often multiple uses for at least 138 of these trees." (p. 78) The botanist P.W. Richards found that his Arawak Indian guide had a native name for more than 300 different trees. In almost every case Richards found each native name designated a single species. Cassava planted into mounds

25. Carr, S.J. 1989. Technology for Small-Scale Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Experience with Food Crop Production in Five major Ecological Zones. World Bank Technical Paper No. 109. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Technology for Small-Scale Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Experience with Food Crop Production in Five major Ecological Zones. Cassava, yams, millet, sorghum, rice, maize, peanuts, irrigation, slash and burn, organic matter, ridging and tying (p. 46), raised, mulch (p. 47), green manures (farmers don't want to incorporate them - too much labor p. 83), agroforestry, mulch

26. Chambers, R., A. Pacey, and L.A. Thrupp. 1990. Farmer First. Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. 219 pp.

farmer experimentation/farmer innovation/traditional agriculture/participation/agroforestry/

27. Clark, C. 1970. The economics of subsistence agriculture. Macmillan, London.
cassava, subsistence agriculture, Africa, economics HD1415 .C59 1970

28. Cock, J.H. 1985. Cassava: New Potential for a Neglected Crop. Westview, Boulder, CO. 191 pp.

p. 66. has a table comparing cassava nutrient extraction (including P) from soils with five other major crops

p. 90: Cassava is able to develop and yield in low fertility soils. However, to reach adequate production potential, adequate fertilization is needed. P is the most important element in obtaining yield increases.

Although cassava has a high P requirement in the field, this high requirement is not evident because cassava has mycorrhizae which increase P absorption. cassava, production, nutrition, toxicity, processing, marketing, importance in diets, yields, diseases and insect pests, weeds, fertilizers, IPM, cultural practices, storage,

29. Cogwill, U.M. 1971. Some comments on Manihot subsistence and the ancient Maya. Southwestern J. Anthropology.
27: 51-63.

Central America/traditional Refutes Bronson's (1966) contention that cassava was important to the Maya. Claims that soil and climactic factors in the Dept. of Peten in Guatemala limit cassava productivity, and that root crops are more susceptible to disease than maize.

30. Davis, G. 1987. The Indonesian transmigrants. In: Denslow, Julie S.and Padoch, Christine. People of the Tropical Rain Forest. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkely, CA., pp. 143-153.

Cassava/maize/downy mildew/Peronosclerospora maydis/fungi/crop density/spacing/multiple cropping 'Today, the standard farming system used by migrants involves planting corn at wide intervals with the first rain, interplanting rice as the corn matures, and establishing manioc in or around the field as the rainy season advances.'

31. De Bruijn, G.H. and T.S. Dharmaputra. 1974. The Mukibat system, a high-yielding method of cassava production in Indonesia. Neth. J. Agric. Sci.
22: 89-100.

Javanese farmer (Mr. Mukibat) invented the Mukibat system, outyielded normal cassava by 100 %, yields 96 t/ha/yr cassava, farmer innovation, farmer experimentation, grafting, grafts cassava onto Manihot glaziovii (cerea rubber), HDT file

32. de Foresta, H. and A.B.a. Wiyono. 1994. A very intimate agroforestry association. Agroforestry Today.
6(1): 12-14.

cassava, yuca, mukibat system, Java, Indonesia, grafting a scion of Ceara rubber (Manihot glaziovii) onto a root-stock of cassava, increases cassava production five or even ten fold, indigenous knowledge/experimentation,

33. Denevan, W.M. 1970. Aboriginal drained-field cultivation in the Americas. Science.
169: 647-654.

"There are at least 170,000 hectares (170 square kilometers) of ridged field remnants in Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia." Also found in New Guinea. Three main types of land reclamation in aboriginal America were irrigation, terraces, and drainage. Gives 7 types of wet-land cultivation (p. 647). Mounds for cassava in Brazil 50 cm high and 1-2 m across. Probably abandoned because of disease and labor requirements (p. 653). Excellent article. Ridges/hilling/raised/chinampas/South America/Asia/drought/raised

34. Denevan, W.M. and A. Zucchi. 1978. Ridged-field excavations in the central Orinoco Llanos, Venezuela. In: Browman, D. L. World Anthropology: Advances in Andean Archaeology. Aldine, Chicago, pp 235-245.

Ridges/hilling/raised field/llanos/Venezuela/South America cassava main food, AD 1000

35. Denevan, W.M. and e. al. 1984. Indigenous agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon: Bora Indian management of swidden fallows. Interciencia.
9(6): 346-357.

slash and burn, swidden, field abandonment, fruit, cassava, fallow, rotation, Peru, tropical forest, agroforestry, indigenous knowledge Q4 I61

36. Denevan, W.M. and J.M. Treacy. 1987. Young managed fallow at Brillo Nuevo . In Denevan, W.M. and Padoch, C. Swidden-fallow Agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.,
ridges/hilling/raised/slash and burn/fire/heat/diversity/architecture/
multistorey cropping/household gardens/multiple cropping/mixed gardens/Peru Convert short-term cropping system into long-term agroforestry system. Peanuts planted in mounds 20 cm high (p. 9). Cassava also placed laterally into the sides of the mounds

37. Donald, L. 1970. Food production by the Yalunka household, Sierra Leone. In: McLoughlin, Peter F. M. African Food Production Systems. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 318 pp.

Sierra Leone/West Africa/hilling/raised pp. 165-191. Cassava and sweet potatoes planted in mounds 1-1.5 feet high and 3-5 feet in diameter (p.175). Yalunka household

38. Dufour, D.L. 1990. Use of tropical rainforests by native Amazonians. BioScience.
40: 652-659.

Amazon, fire, rainforests, fallow, rotation, ecology, diversity, selection, hunting, fishing, sustainable agroecosystems, tropical forests, indigengous knowledge, cassava, slash and burn, swidden, cassava, fishing,

39. Eden, M.J. and A. Andrade. 1987. Ecological aspects of swidden cultivation among the Andoke and Witoto Indians of the Colombian Amazon. Human Ecology.
15: 339-360.

Weeds are the primary cause of abandonment of cassava swiddens. Cassava makes up 81% of total crop population. 38 cultigens in fields. Andoke and Witoto Indians of the Colombian Amazon Slash and burn/fire/heat/Colombia/South America/diversity

40. Eden, M.J. 1988. Crop diversity in tropical swidden cultivation: Comparative data from Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.
20(2): 127-136.

Cassava/multiple cropping/mixed/slash and burn/fire/heat/Colombia/South America/Papua New Guinea Swiddens can be low or high crop diversity, GOOD article

41. Ene, L.S.O. 1977. Control of cassava bacterial blight (CBB). Tropical Root and Tuber Crops Newsletter.
10: 30-31.

Multiple Cropping/cassava bacterial blight/Xanthomonas manihotis/bacteria, mulching,

42. Ezumah, H.C. and B.N. Okigbo. 1980. Cassava planting systems in Africa. In: Weber, E. J., J. C. Toro M. and M. Graham. Cassava Cultural Practices. IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. IDRC-151e. 152 pp., pp. 44-49.

mounds, cassava, ridges, multiple

43. FAO. 1994. Tropical root and tuber crops. Production, perspectives and future prospects. FAO, Rome. 242 pp.

Tropical root and tuber crops, cassava, taro, sweet potato, Dioscorea, yams, ISBN 92-5-103461-3

44. Fernandez de Oviedo, G. 1959. Historia General y Natural de Las Indias . In: Perez de Tudela Bueno, J. (ed.) Biblioteca de Autores Españoles. Vol. 5. Atlas, Madrid,
written in 1526, account of his years spent in America, slash and burn, planting maize with pointed stick, raised beds, weeds controlled by cassava shade, p. 269 (vol II) use of shade trees called "yaguagüit" for cacao which the Indians pruned to give proper shade. Tree had extremely hard madera negra which did not rot, even in soil ater 100 years. Evergreen tree, when drink cacao they give it a red color so it looks like blood, mentions Indinas in Colombia that ate ants (p. 115 (vol III), in Nicaragua a slave was worth 100 cacao beans, a rabbit 10, a ramera 8-10 beans.

45. Fernandez de Oviedo, G. 1986. Sumario de la Natural Historia de las Indias. ed. M.B. (ed.). Historia 16, Madrid. 181 pp.

written in 1526, describes varieties of cassava in Santo Domingo, slash and burn, planting maize with pointed stick, raised beds for yams & sweet potatoes, weeds controlled by cassava shade, p. 269 (vol II) use of shade trees called "yaguagüit" for cacao which the Indians pruned to give proper shade. Tree had extremely hard madera negra which did not rot, even in soil ater 100 years. Evergreen tree, when drink cacao they give it a red color so it looks like blood, mentions Indinas in Colombia that ate ants (p. 115 (vol III), in Nicaragua a slave was worth 100 cacao beans, a rabbit 10, a ramera 8-10 beans. pruning, insects as food, slavery, Slash and burn/raised/mounds/cassava/

46. Finegan, E.J. 1981. The Use of Agri-silviculture as a Resource Conservation and Rural Community Development Method in the Tropical Wet Forest of Colombia In . Cornell University.
Tumaco, grow maize, cassava, cane, beans, fruit, wood, taro, sweet potatoes, yams, tannier, and pineapple in slash/mulch (p. 93). Know plants that are 'site indicators' for soil fertility, drainage, and degree of shade present. Plants also indicate when land is ready for planting. Mulching/agri-silviculture/agroforestry/
multiple cropping/mixed gardens/tropical wet forest of Colombia/South America/minimum tillage/slash/mulch/site selection/site indicators

47. Fresco, L.O. 1986. Cassava in Shifting Cultivation. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 240 pp.

Organic material put in heaps, burned, and mounds constructed by adding more soil Zaire/Central Africa/Cassava/Yuca/ridges/
farming systems approach/ diversity, slash and burn, multiple cropping, raised beds, ridges, mounds, Zaire, Congo, hilling SB211 C3 F88 1986

48. Gamez, R. and R.A. Moreno. 1982. Epidemiology of beetle-borne viruses of grain legumes in Central America . In: Plumb, R.T. and J. M. Thresh. Plant Virus Disease Epidemiology. Blackwell, London,,
Multiple Cropping/intercropping Incidence of viruses of cowpea in Central America decreased by intercropping with cassava or plantain that restrict insect activities.

49. Glass, E. 1988. Biological control of cassava pests in Africa. CGIAR Secretarial. CGIAR Annual Report Reprint 1987-1988., Washington, DC. 16 pp.

Epidinocarsis lopezi is established in 18 countries over areas of about 1.5 million square kilometers, biological control, cassava insects, mealy bug, pesticides, Africa, IITA, green mite, natural enemies, Paraguay, Bellotti, Epidinocarsis lopezi,

50. Goering, T.J. 1979. Tropical root crops and rural development. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 324. World Bank, Washington, DC. 85 pp.

cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, taro, tannier, tannia, root and tuber crops, economics, production Olin Serial

51. Gold, C.S., M.A. Altieri, and A.C. Bellotti. 1989. Cassava intercropping and pest incidence: a review illustrated with a case study from Colombia. Trop. Pest Management.
35: 339-344.

cassava, yuca, pest management, insects, diseases, intercropping, multiple cropping

52. Gosh, S.P. and e. al. 1989. Performance of cassava in multitier cropping systems. Cassava Newsletter (CIAT).
13(1): 6-9.

multiple cropping Cassava mosaic virus vector (Bemisia spp.) population density is highest when interplanted with coconut, intermediate with Leucaena and banana, and lowest with Eucalyptus. Yields reduced 50% by Eucalyptus and Leucaena 25% by coconut and not reduced by banana.

53. Green, M.M. 1947. Ibo Village Affairs. Praeger, New York. 262.

"Moreover cassava can be left in the ground until required and once established it needs no weeding. In fact the bush can be allowed to come up with it and the land carrying it can be counted on as fallow." cassava, yams, fallow, weed control

54. Hahn, S.K. and F.E. Caveness, ed. 1990. Integrated Pest Management for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. IITA: Ibadan, Nigeria. 235 pp.

Integrated Pest Management for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, cocoyams,

55. Hahn, S.K., L. Reynolds, and G.N. Egbunike. 1992. Cassava as a Livestock Feed in Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 159.

Cassava, IITA, livestock feed, cassava products, cassava processing, protein, toxicity, cyanide

56. Hames, R.B. 1983. Monoculture, polyculture and polyvariety in tropical forest swidden cultivation. Human Ecology.
2: 13-34.

Multiple cropping/slash and burn/fire/heat/America/diversity Feels Geertz model exaggerated. Polyculture not as common as polyvariety (i.e. cultivar mixtures of cassava). 2 Indian groups (Y'kwanna and Yanomamo) use 21-71 species and 30-41 species respectively but says this is not polyculture because species not properly distributed to meet his definition of polycropping. Cassava most important. 'For intercropping to be advantageous, competition between species must be lower than competition between plants of the same species in single stands." (p.15) 'The garden cleared next year may require a different manioc variety complex than the one they are currently using.' (p. 28)

57. Harris, D.R. 1972. The origins of agriculture in the tropics. American Scientist.
60: 180-193.

Information on cereal mentality, (i.e. bias for seed-culture vs. vegetable culture). "Recent field work I carried out among vegecultural swidden cultivators in the upper Orinoco area of Venezuela (Figs. 4-8) suggests that the ecological contrast between vegeculture and seed-culture may be further enhanced by differences in techniques of clearance and tillage (Harris 1971). Here it was observed that manioc swiddens were customarily cleared and burned very incompletely, the stem-cuttings being planted among tangled and rotting debris (Figs. 1 and 8), whereas maize swiddens were cleared and burned more thoroughly and the seeds planted in open ground. Analysis of soil samples from manioc and maize plots revealed that, whereas in the latter organic carbon showed an expected decrease following clearance and burning, in the former it actually increased. " Slash and burn, fire, heat, tipiti, origin of vegetables, yams, taro, cassava, yuca, slash/mulch

58. Herren, T. 1990. Working with nature: progress in biological control of cassava pests in Sub-Saharan Africa. Developing World Agriculture.
91: 94.

cassava insects, biological control, mealy bug, 40,000 deaths and 2 million injuries due to pesticides/year (check)

59. Hiemstra, W. 1986. Natural enemies wanted: serious cassava and leucaena pets under biological control around 1990? ILEIA Newsletter.
(6): 9-11.

cassava, leucaena, biological control,

60. Hiraoka, M. 1986. Zonation of mestizo riverine farming systems in northeast Peru. National Geographic Research.
2(3): 341-371.

Cassava is main staple of ribereños, cassava is deep fried, baked, flour, boiled or fermented to make masato which is a mild beer. Average of 6.5 kg/day needed by household, homegardens, floodplain rice, slash and burn, fire, rotation, long and short fallows, flooding

61. Hiraoka, M. 1989. Agricultural systems on the floodplains of the Peruvian Amazon . In: Browder, J. O. Fragile Lands of Latin America. Strategies for Sustainable Development. Westview Press, Boulder, CO 301 pp,
Agricultural systems on the floodplains of the Peruvian Amazon, flooding, cassava and plantains provide 80% of the river people's (ribereños) calorie needs, yields very high in floodplains, Q1 N27

62. Hladik, C.M., et al., ed. 1993. Tropical Forests, People and Food. Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. ed. UNESCO. Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River, NY.
Amazon, Cameroons, tropical ecosytems, forests, indigenous agriculture, manioc, bananas, food production per hour of labor invested, fishing, game hunting, cassava

63. IITA. 1988. Rice based cropping systems in inland valleys. In: IITA. IITA Annual Report and Research Highlights 1987/1988. Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 55-60.

hilling/raised beds "An annual cycle of mounding and flat tillage is practiced on about 80% of inland valley fields, with the rice planted on flat seed beds and dry season fields on mounds." 85 million hectares of inland valleys in sub-Saharan Africa with 3/4 in West and central Africa. Annual crop rotations of rice followed by cassava, or sweet potatoes, or vegetables. Recycles organic matter and soil nutrients by incorporating crop residues and weeds while making and spreading mounds

64. Ismail, I.G. and S. Suryatna. 1980. Cropping systems research and development in Indonesia. In: IRRI. 10th Report of the Croppings Systems Working Group. Manila, Philippines., pp. 48-60.

Cropping systems/hilling/raised beds for cassava/rice

65. Jones, W.O. 1959. Manioc in Africa. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 315 pp.

/slavery/ 'Wild pigs do not disturb manioc with high prussic acid content and for this reason a field of sweet manioc may sometimes be surrounded by a border of bitter manioc to discourage the marauders.' (p. 23),

66. Kang, B.T., et al. 1991. Agroforestry in Africa's humid tropics. Three success stories. Agroforestry Today.
3(2): 4-6.

pigeonpea is grown with cassava. Pigeonpea leaves are used as mulch after pods harvested. Some planted in mounds (mafuku) system. Cut grass gathered in mounds at 1.2-1.5 m intervals, covered with soil, & burned. Some planted in ridges. Grass burned & ridges built. Raised. Multiple. Intercropping, hilling, fire, burn

67. Kasasian, L. 1978. Pest Control in Tropical Root Crops. PANS Manual No. 4: Min. Overseas Development, London, UK. 235 pp.

cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, weeds, root crops, taro, tannia,,

68. Kass, D. 1987. Alley cropping of annual food crops with woody legumes in Costa Rica J.W. Beer, H.W. Fassbender, andJ. Heuveldop, Editor. pp. 197-208. In: Advances in Agroforestry Research, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

alley cropping, bean, cassava, maize, Gliricidia, Erythrina, mulch

69. Kay, D.E. and E.G.B. Gooding. 1987. Root Crops. 2 ed. TPI Crop and Product Digest No. 2 - 2nd Ed., Tropical Development and Research Institute, London, UK. 380 pp.

root and tuber crops, cassava, yams, taro, tannier, sweet potatoes, oca, mashua, ulluco SB 111 A1 L84T vol 2

70. Kayumbo, H.Y. Year. Pest control in mixed cropping systems. In: J.H. Monyo, A.D.R. Ker, andM. Campbell. Intercropping in Semi-Arid Areas. Ottawa, Canada.: IDRC 076e.

Multiple cropping/maize/cassava/insects/pesticides/Tanzania/East Africa 'The stability of mixed cropping systems can result from their ability to maintain yields despite pest and disease attack.'
(p. 39) 'The challenge for applied entomologists lies in utilizing the innate pest management properties of these systems that have stood the only valid test of ecological management - their persistence over time.' (p. 40)

71. Kramer, B.J. 1977. Las implicaciones ecologicas de la agricultura de los Urarina. Amazonia Peruana.
1: 75-86.

The Urarina, an Indian people of the Amazon in northern Peru have an interesting agricultural system which can become either slash and burn or slash/mulch. They slash the understory brush, plant plantains in the cut brush, and then fell trees on the cut brush and plantains. Sometimes they burn the slashed brush after it dries, but sometimes, if there is too much rain or if there is insufficient vegetation for a good burn, they do not burn, but simply let the slashed vegetation decompose. They may also plant maize, cassava, peanuts, and squash, sugar cane, taro, and sweet potatoes in their plots. Plots are generally abandoned after 2-3 harvests. Their system also effectively protects the soil from erosion. Kramer noted that the Urarina consider the system less difficult and labor intensive than the conventional slash and burn system. slash and burn, slash/mulch, Amazon, Peru

72. Larios, J.F. and R.A. Moreno. 1976. Epidemiologia de algunas enfermedades foliares de yuca en diferentes sistemas de cultivo. I. Mildiu polvoroso y roña. Turrialba.
26: 389-398.

Multiple Cropping/yuca/Uromyces spp./ash disease/Erysiphe manihotis/Oidium manihotis/fungi Cassava (yuca) and maize intercropped led to more rust and powdery mildew on cassava

73. Larios, J.F. and R.A. Moreno. 1977. Epidemiologia de algunas enfermedades foliares de la yuca en diferentes sistemas de cultivo. II. Roya y muerte descendente. Turrialba.
27: 151-156.

Multiple Cropping/fungi/cassava Anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata = Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) more severe in monoculture. No differences in rust (Uromyces spp.)

74. Lathrap, D.W. 1970. The Upper Amazon. Thames and Hudson, London.
Amazon, tropical forests, terracing, raised beds, ridges, slash and burn, swidden, cassava, American Indian tribes, Carib Indians

75. Legg, J.P. 1999. "Emergence, Spread and Strategies for Controlling the Pandemic of Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East and Central Africa,". CROP PROT.
18(10): 627-637.

cassava mosaic, virus, epidemic, control

76. Leihner, D. 1983. Management and Evaluation of Intercropping Systems with Cassava. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 70 pp.

Cassava/yuca/intercropping/multiple cropping/Colombia/South America

77. Litzenberger, S.C. and H.T. Lip. 1961. Utilizing Eupatorium odoratum L. to improve crop yields in Cambodia. Agron. J.
53(1-6): 321-324.

Average lowland rice yields 1/2 to 1 t/ha, Eupatorium odoratum (now Chromolaena odorata} introduced from W. Indies, got 2X as much rice with 15 t/ha green mulch as check, crabs controlled in rice also, conducted experiments 1958-1960, 20 t/ha of Eupatorium applied to rice paddy increased yields an average of 1.26 t/ha, toxic to fish, but crabs controlled, no difference in applying Eupatorium as mulch or incorporating it as a mulch, with cassava Eupatorium applied at 45 t/ha gave a yield of 22 t/ha compared to 10 t/ha in check,with cassava Eupatorium applied at 20 t/ha gave a yield of 14 t/ha compared to 10 t/ha in check, applied as a mulch of 45 t/ha to black pepper helped control Pythium and nematodes (Heterodera marioni), weed, Cambodia, Chromolaena odorata, mulch, green manure, rice, pepper, cassava, mulch

78. Livingstone, D. 1857. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. Ward, Lock & Co., London. 732 pp.

cassava/Central Africa/hillling 'In 1854, along the upper Zambezi, not far from the border of the Belgian Congo, David Livingstone saw manioc planted in raised oblong beds, between which beans and groundnuts were sown.' (Jones, 1959; p. 93)

79. Livingstone, D. 1857. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. Ward, Lock & Co., London. 732 pp.

cassava/Central Africa/hillling 'In 1854, along the upper Zambezi, not far from the border of the Belgian Congo, David Livingstone saw manioc planted in raised oblong beds, between which beans and groundnuts were sown.' (Jones, 1959; p. 93)

80. Lotero Villa, L. 1977. Monografia de la Indigenista Noamama. Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Bogota, Colomba.
p. 48 mentions Minga, inviting neighbors, familys, etc. to minga, slash/mulch system, grow sugar cane, maiz, platains, cassava, pineapple, fruit, in slash/mulch plots, mulching, OLIN + F2270.2 C6 L88

81. Lozano, J.C. 1990. A useful approach to the biocontrol of cassava pathogens . In: Hahn, S. K. and F. E. Caveness. (eds.) Integrated Pest Management for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 235 pp.,
biocontrol of cassava pathogens, preharvest root rots, storage, postharvest root rots

82. Lozano T., J.C. and E.R. Terry. Year. Cassava disease and their control. In: J. Cock, R. MacIntyre, andM. Graham. Proceeding of the 4th Symposium of the Society for Tropical Root Crops. Ottowa, Canada: IDRC (IDRC no. 080e).

Recommend ridges/ hilling/raised/Phytophthora/fungi/root rots

83. Ludwig, H.-D. 1968. Permanent farming on Ukara . pp. 87-135. In: Ruthenberg, H. 1968. Smallholder farming and smallholder development in Tanzania: ten case studies. Weltfrom Verlag, Munich.,
forage tree, slash, manure, organic matter, irrigation, millet, rice, bambara nuts, cassava, rotation, green manure, erosion, mulch

84. McCourtie, W.D. 1973. Traditional farming in Liberia. Univ. of Liberia, Monrovia, Monrovia. 110 pp.

Traditional farming in Liberia, Economics, Rice, cassava, slash and burn, fire, HD2147 L7 M13

85. McKey, D. and S. Beckerman. 1993. Chemical ecology, plant evolution and traditional manioc cultivation systems . pp. 83-112. In: Hladik, C. M , A. Hladik, O.F. Linares, H. Pagezy, A. Semple, M. Hadley (eds.) Tropical Forests, People and Food. Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. UNESCO and Parthenon., Paris.

cassava, bitter and sweet, cyanide toxicity, defensive role against insects, diseases, etc., advantages and disadvantages of bitter manioc,

86. McLoughlin, P.F.M. 1970. African Food Production Systems. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
Africa/slash and burn/
fire/heat/systems/hilling/raised Cassava and sweet potatoes planted in mounds 1-1.5 feet high and 3-5 feet in diameter (p. 175).

87. Meggers, B.J. 1971. Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise. Aldine, Atherton, Chicago. 182 pp.

Amazonia/slash and burn/fire/heat/Brazil/South America/Indians/vareza/Jivaro Jivaro eat red ants and white grubs of Chonta beetle. Several quarts of fermented drink made from sweet cassava consumed daily by adults (p. 60). Also consume leaves (p. 100). cassava storage (p. 102)

88. Moran, E.F. 1993. Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations. Univ. of Iowa Press, Iowa, City, Iowa.
Amazon, human ecology, tropical forests, traditional agriculture, conservation, floodplains, savannas, campo cerrado, cassava (p. 44), yuca, manioc, slash and burn

89. Moreno, R.A. Year. Crop protection implications of cassava intercropping. In: E. Weber, B. Nestel, andM. Campbell. Intercropping with Cassava (IDRC-142e). Proc. of an international workshop. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

Powdery mildew highest when cassava intercropped with maize, lowest with beans, and intermediate in monocropped cassava. Scab severity was delayed by intercropping with maize. Rust reduced in all intercropping systems. Cercospora leaf spot and cassava dieback unaffected by intercropping. Also report effects of intercropping on angular leaf spot and rust on beans, cowpea mosaic virus, cowpea chlorotic mosaic virus, powdery mildew, Ascochyta and Cercospora leaf spot on cowpea Multiple Cropping/Oidium manihotis/Erysiphe manihotis/Sphaceloma sp./Uromyces manihotis/Cercospora henningsii/C. Caribaea/Colletotrichum sp./fungi/cowpeas

90. Mowat, L. 1989. Cassava and Chicha. Bread and Beer of the Amazonian Indians. Shire Ethnography, Buck, UK. 64 pp.

Cassava and Chicha. Bread and Beer of the Amazonian Indians. Storage,

91. Mowatt, L. 1989. Cassava and Chica: Bread and Beer of the Amazonian Indians. Shire, UK. 64 pp.

The staple diet of most Amazonian indians is based on a plant known as manioc. This plant is processed to convert it to cassava bread and manioc beer known as chica. This book looks at how manioc has changed lifestyles in the Amazon and how life is centred around its production, trade and consumption.

92. Muimba-Kankolongo, A., et al. 1989. Outbreak of an unusual stem tip dieback of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in western Zaire. Agric. Ecosystems and Environment.
25: 151-164.

Planting date/Zaire/Central Africa Cassava stem tip dieback of unknown etiology. Mulching and late planting reduce incidence of dieback

93. Nestel, B. and M. Graham. 1977. Cassava As An Animal Feed. IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. 147 pp.

cassava, animal feed, pigs, fungi, ruminants, cyanide, HCN, chickens, yuca, nutrition

94. Norman, M.J.T., C.J. Pearson, and P.G.E. Searle. 1995. The Ecology of Tropical Food Crops. 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. 370 pp.

tropical food crops, bananas, ecology, tropics, cassava, yams, tropical cropping systems, rice, legumes,

95. Nyiira, Z.M. 1972. Report of investigations on cassava mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) In . Dept. Agriculture, Kawanda Res. Sta. , Uganda.
Uganda, cassava mite, insect,

96. Nyoka, G.C. 1986. Potentials for no-tillage crop production in Sierra Leone . In: Lal, R., Sanchez, P. A. and Cummings Jr., R. W. Land Clearing and Development in the Tropics. Bakema, Rotterdam,
slash and burn/fire/heat/Sierra Leone/West Africa/raised 'Another form of minimum tillage commonly used in some parts of the country involves planting cassava (Manihot ultilissima Pohl) on small, widely spaced mounds and leaving the rest of the ground untouched.' (p. 66)

97. O'Hair, S.K. 1990. Tropical root and tuber crops. Hort. Reviews.
12: 157-196.

General review article on root and tuber crops cassava, yams, aroids, yautia, Xanthosoma, Colocasia,

98. Okigbo, B.N. and D.J. Greenland. 1976. Intercropping systems in tropical Africa . In: Stelley, M. Multiple Cropping. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI. ASA Special Publ. No. 27,
multiple cropping/hilling/raised/mounds
/beds/ridges/intercropping/Africa Table 2 has % of African crops grown in mixes (e.g. cassava 50% etc.)

99. Okigbo, B.N. and R. Lal. 1982. Residue mulches, intercropping and agri-silviculture potential in tropical Africa . In: Hill, S. Basic Techniques in Ecological Farming. Birkhuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.,
Found rice hull mulch increased maize yields by 0.7 tons/hectare and cassava by 12 tons/hectare. "As mulches minimize soil erosion, crop yield can be sustained without requiring bush fallow rotation." Describe experiments with 22 different mulching treatments. intercropping/organic matter/organic amendments/agroforestry/multiple cropping/mixed gardens/no tillage/minimum tillage/crop residue/sanitation/rotations

100. Parsons, J.J. and W.A. Bowen. 1966. Ancient ridged fields of the San Jorge River Floodplain, Colombia. Geographical Review.
56: 317-343.

ridged/hilling/Colombia/South America 160,000 acres of raised fields found in San Jorge flood plain. Suggests cassava, Xanthosoma, and yams were grown.

101. Parsons, J.J. and W.M. Denevan. 1967. Pre-Colombian ridged fields. Sci. Amer.
217(1): 93-100.

Ridges/hilling/Central America/South America Raised fields in Colombia, Surinam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico. Fields in Surinam probably used for cassava. Also suggests that raised fields in Bolivia and Colombia may have been used for cassava in areas subject to flooding. North American Indians may have had raised fields near Ft. Wayne, IN, and Michigan (Henry Schoolcraft, p. 98-99). good pictures.

102. Persley, G.J. 1990. Beyond Mendel's Garden: Biotechnology in the Service of World Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
biotechnology, transgenic engineering, cassava

103. Pickersgill, B. and C.B. Heiser Jr. 1977. Origins and distribution of plants domesticated in the New World tropics . pp. 803-835. In: Reed, C.A. (ed.) 1977. Origins of Agriculture. Mouton: The Hague. 1013 pp., The Hague, the Netherlands.

maize, cassava, peppers, origins, Americas, legumes, potatoes

104. Plumbley, R.A. and J.E. Rickard. 1991. Post-harvest deterioration of cassva. Tropical Science.
31: 295-303.

yuca, cassava, storage, Aspergillus,

105. Posey, D.A. and W. Balée, ed. 1989. Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. Vol. 7. Advances in Economic Botany: . 1-287.

Resource Management, Amazonia, Indigenous and Folk Strategies, slash and burn, mixed gardens, cassava, floodplain agriculture, multiple, selection, diversity, fallow, heat, flooding, habitat selection, agroforestry, rotations, conservation, weeds, Brazil, Peru, intercropping F 2519.1 A6 R43x 1989

106. Quiroga-M., R.R. Year. Uso de leguminosas para recuperación de la estabilidad en agroecosistemas de la Fraylesca, ChiapasWorkshop on Slash/Mulch Practices. Sustainable Production Systems. Turrialba, Costa Rica, October 1992: CIIFAD, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

Velvet beans, green manures/cover crops, organic matter, mulching, organic amendments, slash/mulch, mucuna, organic matter, erosion, slash and burn, Canavalia, Cajanus cajan, mung bean, Vigna, cassava, kudzu, mulch

107. Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 1965. Colombia: Ancient People and Places. Thames and Hudson, London. 231 pp.

Colombia/South America/agriculture/hilling/raised/drought Proof of cassava culture. 'In many parts of the San Jorge Valley one can still observe hundreds of acres covered with parallel ridges separated by furrows, providing well-drained fields for maize and other crops.' (p. 127) Ideas on early cassava culture (pp. 63-64). Find large flat clay griddles for baking cassava over fire in many areas.

108. Research), C.(.G.o.I.A. 1996. "25 Years of Food and Agriculture Improvement in Developing Countries. II. CGIAR-Mandated Food Crops." In . (http://www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/25years/mand.html).:
world crops, rice, cassava, maize, CGIAR research, yams,

109. Rhoades, R.E. and P. Bidegaray. 1987. The Farmers of Yurimaguas: Land Use and Cropping Strategies in the Peruvian Jungle. International Potato Center (CIP)., Lima, Peru. 102 pp.

Slash and burn/fire/heat/household gardens/diversity/Peru/South America/Yurimaguas/rice/maize/bananas/plantains/beans/cassava

110. Richards, P. 1984. Indigenous Agricultural Revolution: Ecology and Food Production in West Africa. Westview, Boulder, CO. 192 pp.

"In West Africa 80% of all farmland is intercropped." Figures on value of burning (p. 22-23). Discussion of "elitist" CGIAR system. "Rice is planted down flooded furrows and cassava and cocoyams are intercropped on the ridges." (p. 79-80) Agricultural systems/slash and burn/multiple cropping/swamp rice/cassava/ridges/hilling/raised beds/fire/heat

111. Roosevelt, A.C. 1980. Parmana: Prehistoric Maize and Manioc Subsistence Along the Orinoco and Amazon. Academic Press, New York. 320 pp.

Slash and burn/fire/heat/maize and cassava subsistence/Orinoco and Amazon/South America, Boserup , Meggers, Brazil, flooding, flood plain,

112. Ruthenberg, H., ed. 1968. Smallholder farming and smallholder development in Tanzania: ten case studies. Weltforum Verlag: Munich, Germany.
raised, tie ridges, labor, cassava, coffee, bananas, fodder trees, bambara nuts, farming systems, slash and burn, fallow, rotation, multiple cropping, tie ridges, raised, mounds, manure, organic matter, irrigation, rice, fodder trees, HD2147 T17 R97

113. Saha, S.C. 1990. A history of agriculture in Liberia, 1822-1970 : transference of American values. E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, N.Y. 128 pp.

history of agriculture, economics, rice, cassava, HD2147.5 .S24x 1990

114. Salick, J., N. Cellinese, and S. Knapp. 1997. Indigenous diversity of cassava: generation, maintenance, use, and loss among the Amuesha, Peruvian Upper Amazon. Economic Botany.
51: 6-19.

"In situ germplasm conservation provides the only viable option for conserving diversity." Ex-situ repositories lost most of the varieties sent to them by Salick. cassava, yuca, biodiversity, diversity, women maintain the diversity, Boster (1984 lists 700 cultivars), germplasm conservation, in situ and ex-situ conservation, Amazon, tropical forests, indigenous/traditonal knowledge

115. Sauer, C.O. 1969. Agricultural origins and dispersals. The domestication of animals and foodstuffs. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA. 175 pp.

Plants, Cultivated, History, Domestic animals, origins of crop plants, mounds, hilling, raised, culture, fire, heat, mounds, ridges, cassava, peach palm, pejibaje, Andean crops, maize, beans, squash multiple cropping, animal origins,

116. Sokolov, R. 1992. Colombus: cassava. Natural History.
101(10/92): 68.

page 68; On December 16, 1492 Columbus mentioned cassava in the log of his first voyage. On December 26, 1492 he wrote the following: "The King of Hispaniola dined with me on the Niña and afterwards went ashore with me, where he paid me great honor. Later we had a meal with two or three kinds of ajes (cassava), served with shrimp, game and other foods they have, including their bread, which they call cazabe. They are still preparing cazabe in the Caribbean islands." cassava, Columbus, cazabe

117. Soria, J., et al. 1975. Investigación sobre sistemas de producción agricola para el pequeño agricultor del trópico. Turrialba.
25: 283-283.

Less rust on beans associated with maize than in a monoculture. Most multiple cropping systems are more productive using Land Equivalent Ratio. More powdery mildew on cassava (yuca) in a cassava/ maize intercrop/Uromyces appendiculatus/Erysiphe manihotis/Oidium manihotis/fungi

118. Staver, C. 1989. Why farmers rotate fields in maize-cassava-plantain bush fallow agriculture in the West Peruvian Amazon. Human Ecology.
17: 401-426.

maize/cassava/plantain/bush fallow agriculture/West Peruvian Amazon/slash and burn, fire, rotation

119. Stocks, A. 1983. Candoshi and Cocamilla swiddens in eastern Peru. Human Ecology.
11: 69-84.

Slash and burn/fire/heat/Peru/South America Maize and plantains planted closest to house, legumes farther away, and cassava in jungle (in concentric rings).

120. Storey, H.H. 1936. Virus diseases of East African plants: VI. A progress report on the disease of cassava. E. Afr. Agric. J.
2: 34-39.

Clean seed/cassava/African cassava mosaic virus/East Africa

121. Tamayo, F. 1987. Los Llanos de Venezuela. Monte Avila, Editores, Caracas. 244 pp.

Los Llanos de Venezuela, llanos=plains, ranching, cattle, conucos prepared by constuction of a fence around an area. Cattle penned in the area and after sufficent manure accumulated, cattle removed and crops are grown (cassava, beans, maize, etc.). They also use flooded land next to rivers to grow crops, slash and burn also used where there are trees. Practices a legacy of the Indians. flooding, heat, fire, organic matter, rotations,

122. Taylor, D. 1988. Agricultural practices in Eastern Maputaland. Development Southern Africa.
5(4): 465-481.

cassava most drought resistant of all crops grown, but regarded as a "poor man's crop",
Maize cobs picked and hung above cooking fire so they blacken and are protected from weevil attack, hippppotamus problem, raised beds of up to one meter used (ditches surrounding beds help to keep hippos out), cutworms killed with ash, bones places in the field to attrack ants & bones with ants on them are then removed from the field, young virgins would dance naked in maize fields and this would chase away the maize stalk-borer, one of the methods of swamp farming includes slash/mulch where vegetation is left to rot : "Felling of trees and vegetation is done some months before planned cultivation and some slashing of regrowth is necessary." (p. 74), three other slash and mulch systems are also used in swampy areas South Africa, Zululand, African tropics, maize streak, late blight and early blight of potatoes, hippppotamus problem, slash/mulch Olin Library - HC905 .D48

123. Terry, E.R., et al., ed. 1983. Tropical root crops, production and uses in Africa. IDRC: . 231.

cassava, Rwanda, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, root crops Have

124. Thottappilly, G., et al., ed. 1992. Biotechnology: Enhancing Research on Tropical Crops in Africa. IITA/CTA co-publication. IITA: Ibadan, Nigeria. 364 pp.

biotechnology, tissue culture, cassava, bananas, yams, grain legumes, genetic manipulation, RFLP technology, resistance to viruses, moncolonal antibodies, biosafety

125. Thung, M. and J.H. Cock. Year. Multiple cropping cassava and field beans: Status of present work at the International Centre of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). In: E. Weber, B. Nestel, andM. Campbell. Intercropping with Cassava (IDRC-142e). Proc. of an international workshop. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

South America/multiple cropping/beans In Colombia 40% of cassava is grown mixed culture

126. Thurston, H.D., et al. 1999. Traditional Management of Agrobiodiversity . In: Wood, D. and J. M. Lenné (eds.) Agrobiodiversity: Characterization, Utilization and Management. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.,
Traditional Agroecosystems, Landraces, Multiple Cropping, Biodiversity, Fallowing and Rotation, Organic Amendments and Biological Control, Flooding, Cassava in Amazon, maize in Mexico, Bean in Eastern Africa, Rice Diversity, Traditional Management of Domesticated Animal Diversity

127. Tothill, J.D. 1948. Agriculture in the Sudan, being a handbook of agriculture as practised in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Oxford Univ. Press, London, England. 974 pp.

excellent information on traditional agriculture in the Sudan traditional agriculture in the Sudan, indigenous knowledge, slash and burn, storage, termite control, terraces, irrigation, crop production, cotton diseases, cassava mosaic, S342 T71 (in vault)

128. Ugent, D., S. Pozorski, and T. Pozorski. 1986. Archeological manioc (Manihot) from coastal Peru. Econ. Botany.
40: 78-102.

cassava, yuca, Peru,

129. Weber, E., B. Nestel, and M. Campbell. Year. Intercropping with CassavaIDRC-142e. Proc. of an Int. Workshop. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

Multiple Cropping/intercropping

130. Weber, E.J., J.C.T. M., and M. Graham. 1980. Cassava cultural practices. IDRC-151e, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. 152 pp.

cassava, cultural practices, storage, planting, weeds, diseases and pests,

131. Whitten Jr., N.E. 1974. Black Frontiersmen. A South American Case. Schenkman Publishing Co., New York. 221 pp.

Ecuador, Colombia, tropical forests, indigenous knowledge, Pacific coast, development, swidden, slash/mulch, cassava, rituals, colonization, Chocó Indians, Esmeraldas, F3722.1 C23 W621

132. Whitten Jr., N.E. 1976. Sacha Runa. Ethnicity and Adaptation of Ecuadorian Jungle Quichua. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 348 pp.

Ecuador, tropical forests, indigenous knowledge, Amazonian rim, development, swidden, slash and burn, Chagra, slash/mulch, cassava, making and drinking chicha from cassava, rituals, colonization, Jivaroans, F3722.1 C23 W621

133. Wigg, D. 1993. The quiet revolutionaries. A look at the campaign by agricultural scientiests to fight hunger. (... and how the much-neglected cassava could help). World Bank. World Bank Development Essays 2., Washington, DC. 47 pp.

cassava, yuca, Bellotti, mealy bug, Hahn, supercassava, breeding, biological control, Benin, Nigeria, Herren, hornworm, green mite,

134. Wigg, D. 1994. The Quiet Revolutionaries. A Look at the Campaign by Agricultural Scientists to Fight Hunger. World Bank, Washington, DC. 52 pp.

This essay tells two related stories about the fight against hunger. It looks at how agricultural researchers worldwide help feed a hungry world. And it describes how committed scientists saved the cassava root crop in Africa from devastation.
In much of the developing world, the cassava is a staple. In Africa alone, the cassava helps feed more than 200 million
people. The essay recounts how famine in parts of Africa was prevented with a successful campaign to defeat insects that
were devastating cassava crops. cassava, Nigeria, Colombia, CIAT, biological control, mealy bug, yuca

135. Wilbert, J., ed. 1961. The Evolution of horticultural systems in native South America: causes and consequences; a symposium. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle: Caracas, Venezuela. 128 pp.

conuco, Taino agriculture, farming systems in the Caribbean, cassava, Indians of South America, Agriculture, Cuba, Dominical Republic, mounds, slash and burn, fire, heat, mixed gardens, multiple cropping, raised, Amazon, Kirkuru Indians,

136. Wood, D. and J. Lenné. Year. Dynamic management of domesticated biodiversity by farming communities. In: O.T. Sandlund and P.J. Schei. Norway/UNEP Expert Conference on Biodiversity. Reso Royal Garden Hotel, Trondheim, Norway: Norwegian Ministry of Environment and UNEP.

biodiversity, genetic diversity, mixtures, plant domestication, weeds, conservation in situ or ex situ, landraces, beans, traditional, farming communities, landraces, rice, cassava, maize,